Concept Development

Concept Development is an excellent way to open the learner’s mind to the learning objective.

IAB_CL1_PX01449In teaching, it helps to put things into stages or steps. As we move closer to the meat of the lesson, concept development brings us to what we call “The Big Picture.” Here, we examine with the students what exactly this lesson is all about and why it will be beneficial to learn it (also an aspect of another step we’ll cover later called importance.)

Bring in realia, newspaper clippings, objects, music, etc. This is a great place to really make the learning objective come alive. It’s where you literally “develop the concept” for them. For example, if you are teaching similies, you would make examples and show them and make a “non-example” as well. Continue reading “Concept Development”

Think Outside the Box with Kids

One thing I have learned in years of teaching is that kids remember better when you teach non-traditionally.  There is a lot of value in traditional frameworks but it is when you step outside that you really imprint to memory.  I remember when I was in college I had a college algebra professor who would pick a chair up and smack through the seat to show how important the correct equation was to building a chair.  If you got the equation wrong, the seat would fall through.  i will always remember that as the importance of math.  Kids of all ages are the same way.  use props, act things out, give visuals.  These quirky things outside the box are what make kids remember abstract concepts in concrete ways.

When Kids Don’t Answer

Checking for understanding sometimes reveals a child doesn’t know the answer or doesn’t comprehend the question. Here’s a look at that and something you can say in that situation.

kids in a lineChecking for understanding sometimes reveals a child doesn’t know the answer or doesn’t comprehend the question. Here’s a look at that and something you can say in that situation. Using popsicle sticks to call on randon non-volunteers is an excellent way to check for understanding (CFU) during a lesson. You can use a number of things besides sticks, for example I use a deck of cards and the kids are numbered, but the important thing is that the kids do not know who’ll be called next and they must think you are doing it at random. I might say: “The kids in this picture are eating and laughing.” to a group of 1st graders. Then, I might explicitly show the way I know they are eating and laughing etc. After that I would say something like: “Ok, now I will ask you a question to check for understanding, the kids are eating and what else?” Then I would wait 3 seconds for each kid to summon the answer in her/his head and pull the card. “#13?” If 13 is silent or says she/he doesn’t know, this can mean one of several things. They may have understood but are unable to answer the question due to the way it was asked etc. One suggestion I have for you in this situation is to simply lookin them in the eye and say: “I’ll come back to you.”

This takes the pressure off the kid but keeps them paying attention because you have promised to come back. Here are some sample lessons.

What other things do you suggest when kids don’t know the answer?

Welcome to My Brain

300x300brainlogoOver the years I have become a huge fan of “guided practice.” It’s arguably the single most important part of my teaching. The reason for this is that I’ve seen amazing results from it.Guided practice is just that: guiding kids through practicing the standard. I call this step “welcome to my brain.” I preface it by telling the kids I have taken many tests to be successful in life. I establish myself as an “expert test taker.” Then I get them interested by showing them how I, the teacher, takes tests and scores high. I find the buy in to be almost 100%. I explain that each of us has a computer, our brain, where we do things a special way. They are usually very eager to see how I process things and then they can copy me. I also tell them in time they will have it memorized and if they want they can try their own way. Continue reading “Welcome to My Brain”

Activate Prior Knowledge

The step in teaching where you should talk about what students already know to make a connection.

IAB_CL1_PX01572I tell my kids they should love this part of the lesson because ?prior knowledge? means basically: ?Stuff they already know.? All I am doing here is getting them to fix on something they understand. I will use this quickly to bridge to what they have yet to learn. For example, if I am doing a lesson to 8th graders on consumer documents I can explain to them how skateboards come with a warranty.

I can get them very involved in sharing stories of ?prior knowledge? about pasts that have broken and got replaced within the terms of the warranty. Then I can bridge from that to the lesson objective which might be analyzing the various terms of a consumer document. The learning objective can be restated throughout the lesson reminding the students that each thing we are doing has a place in getting towards that learning objective. I thoroughly enjoy the elaboration from kids during ?APK? or activate prior knowledge. They have a lot of enthusiasm in telling me what they know. I think the ?dynamite? advice for this step would be to pick an APK subject that they know and enjoy. Getting kids comfortable at the beginning of the lesson through prior knowledge is a dynamite tool. Here are some sample lessons.

Importance

Kids remember things when they have relevance to their lives. Using creativity to come up with what multiplication facts are important will raise test scores.

IAT_CL1_PX00770The next step of EDI is importance. Before I learned EDI I always tried to infuse this into my lessons. Unfortunately, I didn’t always get to it. EDI makes it mandatory and I know why: it is very effective.

Kids remember things when they have relevance to their lives. Using creativity to come up with what multiplication facts are important will raise test scores. It should be part of every dynamite lesson you do. Think about your own motivation to do work: if it wasn’t relevant to money, sense of happiness, etc. would you still do it? I wouldn’t. Give your kids the reason(s) your learning objective is important. You will be astounded at the results. Here are some sample lessons using the step of importance.

Backwards Mapping for Planning Instruction

In planning instruction toward a dynamite lesson plan, one extremely effective form of CFU is called curriculum mapping. It is referred to by many teachers as: “backwards mapping.” This can be used to strategically work toward test goals.

Backwards Mapping Requires Reflection

A Dynamite lesson plan is great, but we musn’t forget that assessment is a key part. In a given lesson plan format, such as EDI, it is often called CFU (Check for Understanding). As teachers, we need to know what stuents know when they know it.. EDI is a form of instruction. Today I am writing to you about planning instruction which is a “whole different animal,” as they say. Before the lesson plan, there must be backwards mapping.

Curriculum Mapping Requires Testing

Backward mapping requires a test. The test becomes the “data” for use in making a “backward map.” The test ideally is calibrated with the same standards as you plan to master with the students. Once you’ve given the test you can analyze the data by noting the percentage of accuracy on each standards. Depending on the teaching situation, you might decide standards that 70% of the class got correctly are no longer needed in your instruction. Whatever your lesson plan format, since we know the brain needs review you can always review that throughout the year.

Make the Map and Take the Road

The items where the students had less than a proficient percentage now become part of your instruction “map.” You then take those standards and create your instruction going forward. Let’s face it: no one wants their students to fail. This is an excellent way to focus on the toughest standards and guide your instruction to mastery of the concepts. This is a big job when you really get into it. That’s why I recommend doing it on a trimester or other periodical basis. Don’t do it nightly or even weekly. Wait for the data to be relevant, over time.

No Instant Gratification but …

Remember also that the brain likes small bites so resist the urge to re-teach it all at once. Teaching is a job of patience and tenacity not instant gratification. However, through setting goals and using strategies like backward mapping, we can experience the rush and satisfaction of seeing goals achieved.

If you use backward mapping or plan to implement it or something like it into your teaching, please let us know in the comments.

Backward Map Review – A Great Way to do Test Prep

If you want your kids to feel comfortable with all the material, you need to get them familiar with it now. Using the past test to go over and review with the kids is like gold.

With about 20 days left to the California Standards Test (CST), it is challenging how to spend your teaching tie. Of course, the free mind of a teacher can analyze similar tests and divine what to reteach. This is only a little useful. The best way to do test prep is to analyze the data of your assessments and then “backward map” reteaching the questions that 50% or less missed. This is when an item analysis report comes in handy.

I have my data and it’s magneted up on my white board. Every day for the past week and now into the next days before the standards test I have been teaching test prep and reteaching the concepts where it appears only less than 50% understood. When direct lessons are happening it feels like the best way to teach. Of course you can’s always teach this way. You need to apply yourself to solid, direct instruction and doing backward mapping will help your teaching be more relevant and of more value on the CST. If you want your kids to feel comfortable with all the material, you need to get them familiar with it now. Using the past test to go over and review with the kids is like gold. (It works!)

Why to Have a Learning Objective

IAT_CL1_PX00768When you teach kids, a learning objective is like the train track you can’t deviate from.  It keeps you focused and keeps your students minds from wandering away from your education.  It’s like the old adage: “If you aim at nothing, you’ll surely hit it.”

An example of what happens without an objective is like when you are having coffee with a dear friend and your conversation juts and skips all over the place.  If you’re like me with my best friend, there is nothing linear about it.  In this context it makes perfect sense to not have an “objective.”  When you are teaching kids, on the other hand, a learning objective can get your class to 80% mastery (or higher) faster and more efficiently. Online lesson plans that have a learning objective are far more superior than those who don’t.

An example of a learning objective I do in fact is:

Today we will identify predicates in sentences.

We have a test coming up where they will be asked to do this.  That is called “backward mapping,” looking at the end assessment and then creating your objective based on what they will be tested on. While teaching materials have some value, a learning objective is a must.

Circle the Keywords

Unraavel is an acronym used by many teachers I know. It was created by Larry Bell and it has a specific goal to increase test scores. The second “a” stands for “Are you circling the keywords” and this step of Unraavel is really the most important when it comes to reading comprehension questions. Of course, I can only speak from my experience and my classtroom. My students are about half English Learners and almost 100% socioeconomically disadvantaged. Circling the keywords in the test questions guides their focus on “what to look for” back in the text.

I tell my students they have a better chance of hitting a target than just shooting with no target. The keywords may be chosen incorrectly at first, though the kids get wise quickly, but at least they are traveling back into the text with a compass of some kind. Choosing the right keywords can be fun when kids are rewarded for choosing good ones. Here is an example:

After reading a piece of text about the Incan Indians, a question on the test asks,

About how old was the Incan pottery?

The students would circle “how old” and “pottery.”

Now they are armed to go back into the text looking for these two keywords. I tell my kids they have most everything they need by finding keywords in the text. At that point they can find the exact answer in that context.

Unraavel is just one way to teach test taking strategies for standardized tests but I have found with my students in this given demographic, it is a very good one ideed.