Concept Development is an excellent way to open the learner’s mind to the learning objective.
In teaching, it helps to put things into stages or steps. As we move closer to the meat of the lesson, concept development brings us to what we call “The Big Picture.” Here, we examine with the students what exactly this lesson is all about and why it will be beneficial to learn it (also an aspect of another step we’ll cover later called importance.)
Bring in realia, newspaper clippings, objects, music, etc. This is a great place to really make the learning objective come alive. It’s where you literally “develop the concept” for them. For example, if you are teaching similies, you would make examples and show them and make a “non-example” as well. Continue reading “Concept Development”
One thing I have learned in years of teaching is that kids remember better when you teach non-traditionally. There is a lot of value in traditional frameworks but it is when you step outside that you really imprint to memory. I remember when I was in college I had a college algebra professor who would pick a chair up and smack through the seat to show how important the correct equation was to building a chair. If you got the equation wrong, the seat would fall through. i will always remember that as the importance of math. Kids of all ages are the same way. use props, act things out, give visuals. These quirky things outside the box are what make kids remember abstract concepts in concrete ways.
A table of contents to a powerful and proven teaching method called Explicit Direct Instruction, or EDI.
Explicit Direct Instruction is a teaching method created by Data Works that uses proven scientific data to teach kids. It is a part of my dynamite lesson plan for teaching every day. This method has been used at my
school in teacher training with student achievement as a result. Here is just one of a few examples of good edi lessons (Word format) you’ll find in this series. Above is the table of contents to my posts describing the lesson plan steps in detail. Each step was created with the learning processes of kids in mind. The goal of it was to foster student achievement in public school. My hope is that this method will help you as it has helped me to create and teach dynamite lesson plans. You can access information on each step through the links above. I think you will find each component has a powerful place in student achievement.
Checking for understanding sometimes reveals a child doesn’t know the answer or doesn’t comprehend the question. Here’s a look at that and something you can say in that situation.
Checking for understanding sometimes reveals a child doesn’t know the answer or doesn’t comprehend the question. Here’s a look at that and something you can say in that situation. Using popsicle sticks to call on randon non-volunteers is an excellent way to check for understanding (CFU) during a lesson. You can use a number of things besides sticks, for example I use a deck of cards and the kids are numbered, but the important thing is that the kids do not know who’ll be called next and they must think you are doing it at random. I might say: “The kids in this picture are eating and laughing.” to a group of 1st graders. Then, I might explicitly show the way I know they are eating and laughing etc. After that I would say something like: “Ok, now I will ask you a question to check for understanding, the kids are eating and what else?” Then I would wait 3 seconds for each kid to summon the answer in her/his head and pull the card. “#13?” If 13 is silent or says she/he doesn’t know, this can mean one of several things. They may have understood but are unable to answer the question due to the way it was asked etc. One suggestion I have for you in this situation is to simply lookin them in the eye and say: “I’ll come back to you.”
This takes the pressure off the kid but keeps them paying attention because you have promised to come back. Here are some sample lessons.
What other things do you suggest when kids don’t know the answer?
There are many things we can do with a passage of text. The “cold read” can be used as a time for the kids to read and measure their words per minute (WPM). This helps motivate and improves fluency.
The process is fairly simple. You just have the kids run their finger along the text and you time them for one minute. When they stop, they go back and count the number of words they read. If you have an AVID folder or other organized area dedicated to keeping track, they write the date and their WPM for that day.
After doing this a few days, the kids can set realistic goals to improve their fluency. I was shown how to do this by my Assistant Principal and it went very well. I will report in after a few weeks whether it worked and anything I learn about using ths method.
What do you think about teaching kids to measure their own WPM?
Over the years I have become a huge fan of “guided practice.” It’s arguably the single most important part of my teaching. The reason for this is that I’ve seen amazing results from it.Guided practice is just that: guiding kids through practicing the standard. I call this step “welcome to my brain.” I preface it by telling the kids I have taken many tests to be successful in life. I establish myself as an “expert test taker.” Then I get them interested by showing them how I, the teacher, takes tests and scores high. I find the buy in to be almost 100%. I explain that each of us has a computer, our brain, where we do things a special way. They are usually very eager to see how I process things and then they can copy me. I also tell them in time they will have it memorized and if they want they can try their own way. Continue reading “Welcome to My Brain”
The step in teaching where you should talk about what students already know to make a connection.
I tell my kids they should love this part of the lesson because ?prior knowledge? means basically: ?Stuff they already know.? All I am doing here is getting them to fix on something they understand. I will use this quickly to bridge to what they have yet to learn. For example, if I am doing a lesson to 8th graders on consumer documents I can explain to them how skateboards come with a warranty.
I can get them very involved in sharing stories of ?prior knowledge? about pasts that have broken and got replaced within the terms of the warranty. Then I can bridge from that to the lesson objective which might be analyzing the various terms of a consumer document. The learning objective can be restated throughout the lesson reminding the students that each thing we are doing has a place in getting towards that learning objective. I thoroughly enjoy the elaboration from kids during ?APK? or activate prior knowledge. They have a lot of enthusiasm in telling me what they know. I think the ?dynamite? advice for this step would be to pick an APK subject that they know and enjoy. Getting kids comfortable at the beginning of the lesson through prior knowledge is a dynamite tool. Here are some sample lessons.
Kids remember things when they have relevance to their lives. Using creativity to come up with what multiplication facts are important will raise test scores.
The next step of EDI is importance. Before I learned EDI I always tried to infuse this into my lessons. Unfortunately, I didn’t always get to it. EDI makes it mandatory and I know why: it is very effective.
Kids remember things when they have relevance to their lives. Using creativity to come up with what multiplication facts are important will raise test scores. It should be part of every dynamite lesson you do. Think about your own motivation to do work: if it wasn’t relevant to money, sense of happiness, etc. would you still do it? I wouldn’t. Give your kids the reason(s) your learning objective is important. You will be astounded at the results. Here are some sample lessons using the step of importance.
In planning instruction toward a dynamite lesson plan, one extremely effective form of CFU is called curriculum mapping. It is referred to by many teachers as: “backwards mapping.” This can be used to strategically work toward test goals.
Backwards Mapping Requires Reflection
A Dynamite lesson plan is great, but we musn’t forget that assessment is a key part. In a given lesson plan format, such as EDI, it is often called CFU (Check for Understanding). As teachers, we need to know what stuents know when they know it.. EDI is a form of instruction. Today I am writing to you about planning instruction which is a “whole different animal,” as they say. Before the lesson plan, there must be backwards mapping.
Curriculum Mapping Requires Testing
Backward mapping requires a test. The test becomes the “data” for use in making a “backward map.” The test ideally is calibrated with the same standards as you plan to master with the students. Once you’ve given the test you can analyze the data by noting the percentage of accuracy on each standards. Depending on the teaching situation, you might decide standards that 70% of the class got correctly are no longer needed in your instruction. Whatever your lesson plan format, since we know the brain needs review you can always review that throughout the year.
Make the Map and Take the Road
The items where the students had less than a proficient percentage now become part of your instruction “map.” You then take those standards and create your instruction going forward. Let’s face it: no one wants their students to fail. This is an excellent way to focus on the toughest standards and guide your instruction to mastery of the concepts. This is a big job when you really get into it. That’s why I recommend doing it on a trimester or other periodical basis. Don’t do it nightly or even weekly. Wait for the data to be relevant, over time.
No Instant Gratification but …
Remember also that the brain likes small bites so resist the urge to re-teach it all at once. Teaching is a job of patience and tenacity not instant gratification. However, through setting goals and using strategies like backward mapping, we can experience the rush and satisfaction of seeing goals achieved.
If you use backward mapping or plan to implement it or something like it into your teaching, please let us know in the comments.
Teaching groups that rotate has advantages. Staying “self-enclosed” with one group of students all day can also be helpful. Which is right for your teaching goals and learners’ needs?
I’ve written a few posts on what might be called the single subject intervention model for elementary school. Up to now I have always heralded the strengths of the single subject intervention. To recap, this is simply a model where students rotate into specialist teachers who teach a single subject rather than all core subjects in the same classroom all day long. I have learned this year for the first time in 5 years that I have been doing this that behavior and maturity levels should be considered. If the students are unable to behave, the single subject intervention model might not work. In fact, it may cause the year to be less effectual and much more taking on the teachers. Immature students will take advantage of not having a single teacher in charge. In the single subject models, whicl curriculum varies, must unclude a uniform and progressive class-to-class system of consequences.
This is something to definitely consider in your grade level collaboration as you discuss this intervention as a possibility. The single subject model or “specialist” model is a good one for many reasons. For example, each teacher can focus more time and energies on one subject. In theory, this will produce more interesting, weathered lessons that get better over time. In a self-enclosed “multiple subject” model, one teacher must create and innovate lessons on all subjects required in the district core curriculum. I hope to go into more detail as to what worked for us last year and those before. There were many positives. I plan to publish an article here over the Summer on single subject teaching as an intervention and why this might or might not work for your school and your palette of students. A lot worked and some didn’t. Mostly, what held the intervention back most were student behavior problems.
As part of my preparation for the article, I appreciate any comments on the topics. Tell me your opinions and your experiences.